Role of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
1st stage Nitrification performance far surpassing that conventional filters
Ammonia and nitrite, which are toxic to fish, occur in the water of the tank as the result of the decomposition of waste substances and excess food. These substances are converted by aerobic bacteria to nitrate (nitrification), which is comparatively less toxic.The above sums up the function of conventional filters. totto dramatically increases nitrification performance through its structure consisting of long filter cylinders (which causes the water to travel a longer time through the filter and eliminates the channeling effect).
What is the channeling effect?
Conventional filters receive water across a large surface. Due to its characteristics, water takes the path of least resistance, avoiding clogged areas and forming stable water channels. As a result, only the parts of the filter material crossed by water channels function effectively, and the remainder of the filter material dose not perform filtration at all. This is called the channeling effect. totto employs a structure that ensures 100% effective utilization of the filter material by avoiding the channeling effect.
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2nd stage A nitrification performance that cannot be achieved with conventional filters
Conventional filters cannot eliminate nitrate, and the nitrate concentration gradually rises in the tank. While nitrate is comparatively less toxic to fish,exceeding a certain concentration causes the water to reach an acidity level that is toxic. As a result, periodic water changes are required. totto solves this problem by also hosting anaerobic bacteria that eliminate the nitrate. This removes the need for periodic water changes as long as an adequate living environment is maintained.
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Anaerobic bacteria occurrence mechanism
The structure of the totto filter consists of long interconnected filter cylinders through which the water circulates. The first part, which is rich in oxygen, is the aerobic area.As described above***1, the aerobic bacteria in this area consume oxygen in the process of converting ammonia into nitrite, As a result, oxygen is extremely scarce in the last part of the filter, which makes it an anaerobic area. This part of the filter is supplied with totto-Bactofood, which feeds the anaerobic bacteria (anaerobic bacteria being heterotrophic bacteria that obtain energy from organic substances, they need to be fed organic nutrients in order to propagate ), thus ensuring a lot of anaerobic bacteria activity. Under anaerobic conditions where molecular oxygen hardly exists, nitrates are converted intonitrogen gas, which escapes into the atmosphere.
Advantages over conventional filters
he main difference with conventional filters that use anaerobic bacteria is that totto continuously circulates a constant amount of water in the anaerobic area. Products that bury the organic nutrients to ensure a thriving colony of anaerobic bacteria in gravel or within the filter layer achieve an anaerobic area by creating conditions that almost completely stop the flow of water in the gravel or filter layer, or else let only a very small quantity of water flow through. With this method, there is no way to know how much water actually flows through and it not possible to control the quantity of water; in other words,the creation of a thriving colony of anaerobic bacteria that will denitrify the water is left to luck and the result is a very unreliable filter. Moreover, if anaerobic bacteria become established in areas with no water flow, the denitrification process is also accompanied by emissions of toxic substances such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, which get trapped around the organic substances supplied for the buried anaerobic bacteria. As a result, minor changes in the tank environment such as during water changes can trigger the sudden release of large amounts of toxic substances, not infrequently causing the fish to die. By avoiding the channeling effect, totto dramatically increases the amount of oxygen consumed by aerobic bacteria in the first, aerobic, part of the filter, thereby facilitating the creation of an anaerobic area in the second part of the filter, which makes it a revolutionary product that clearly differs from conventional filters.This section explains how totto is a revolutionary filter not only because it eliminates the need for water changes, but also due to its user-friendly and practical design.
No need to clean filter and filter materials
The filter material is supplied in the form of disposable cartridges. Simply remove the cap of each filter cylinder, pull out the filter cartridge, and replace it with a new one. The whole procedure can be done without touching the water in the tank and eliminates the need to clean the filter and filter materials.
Ideal water quality for the fish
The fact that the filter consists of several filter cartridges makes it easy to adjust the water quality by selecting the best combination of filter materials.Totto currently offers six different types of filter materials including slightly acidic filter material (for freshwater fish), slightly basic water (for marine fish), and additional materials are being developed. This allows user to achieve the best water for their fish.
No need for priming water
Totto is designed so that air is automatically expelled when replacing filter materials, eliminating the need for priming water.
Partial replacement of the filter materials is possible
The filtering performance can be maintained without major fluctuations in the activity of established bacteria through the staggered replacement of filter materials. This ensures stable water quality.
Installation Advantages
・Totto is an external filter that attaches to the back of the tank, thereby preserving a beautiful appearance.
・Totto does not cover the area over the tank, thereby allowing optimal lighting conditions for plants and corals.